Jérôme Vialard’s homepage

Indian Ocean Buoy Picture    Clouds
              during the Cirene cruise

I recently defended my "Habilitation à diriger des recherches", a French post-PhD diploma allowing to become a PhD guide. The "Habilitation" manuscript provides a summary of my research activities between 2001 and 2009. The manuscript (in english) and oral presentation (in French) can be found here.

Research Interests
    •    Air-sea interactions in the tropical oceans, with emphasis on the Indian Ocean
    •    Ocean response to tropical cyclones
    •    Intraseasonal variability of the ocean (internal and forced by the atmosphere)
    •    Interannual variability in the tropics
    •    Decadal variability of the tropical oceans
    •    Ocean modelling (the NEMO ocean modelling system)
    •    Analysis of observational datasets (sattelites, re-analyses, in situ, etc...)
    •    Oceanographic cruises (the Cirene cruise)
Main ongoing projects
The Vasco-Cirene program explores how strong air-sea interactions promoted by the shallow thermocline in the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge (5°S to 10°S, 50°E to 80°E) results in marked variability at synoptic (cyclogenesis region), intraseasonal and interannual timescales in the Indian Ocean. The Vasco component is led by J-P. Duvel. I am leading the oceanographic component of the project: the Cirene oceanographic cruise collected oceanic, atmospheric and air-sea flux observations in this region in January-February 2007. TRIO is a research program and cruise that expands from the previous Vasco-Cirene program. The TRIO science plan is available here.
I spent 2 1/2 years as a visiting scientist at National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) in Goa, India from October 2008 to March 2010. During my visit at NIO, I worked on intraseasonal variability of the Northern Indian Ocean (the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal) with some emphasis of the processes controlling the variations of the coastal currents around the Indian subcontinent.
Two of my new area of interrests are Tropical Cyclones (and thow they are influenced by climate variability and oceanic stratification) and interactions between the Indian and Pacific Oceans (at intraseasonal to decadal timescales).

Member of the CLIVAR Indian Ocean Panel since 2007.

Christian Le Provost was a french oceanographer with an impressive legacy in the area of tides and operational oceanography. A "Christian Le Provost, Oceanographe" award was created in 2009 to reward the work of a young french oceanographer. I was particularly happy to receive the Christian Le Provost award in 2010. I was one of Christian pupils in the course he was giving about tides at ENSTA, and I particularly enjoyed his teaching.

Refereed publications (see my
ResearcherID or Google Scholar page for citation info)

Please e-mail me if you want any draft or reprint.

Submitted / in revision  
  •   Jourdain, N., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, T. Izumo and A. Sen Gupta, 2014 : Influence of the Indian Ocean Dipole on the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the following year, in observations and CMIP5 models: asymmetries, statistical artifacts, and physical processes, Clim. Dyn., in revision.
  •   Chaitanya A.V.S., F. Durand, S. Mathew, V.V. Gopalakrishna, F. Papa, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, Ch. Krantikumar and R. Venkatesan, 2014 : Observed year-to-year sea surface salinity variability in the Bay of Bengal during the period 2009 – 2014, Oc. Dyn., in revision.
  •   Akhil, V.P., F. Durand, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, V.V. Gopalakrishna, J. Boutin, C. de Boyer Montégut and N. Reul, 2014: Validation of SMOS and Aquarius remotely-sensed surface salinity in the Bay of Bengal, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, submitted.
Accepted / online
  •   Menkes, C., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, M. Puy, P. Marchesiello and G. Cambon, 2014: About the role of Westerly Wind Events in the possible development of an El Niño in 2014, Geophys. Res. Lett., online.
  •   Callaghan, A.H., B. Ward and J. Vialard, 2014: Mixing Layer Dynamics in the Upper Indian Ocean: Influence of Surface Forcing on Near-Surface and Mixing Layer Turbulence in the Tropical Indian Ocean, Deep See Reasearch I, online.
  •  Drushka, K., H. Bellenger, E. Guilyardi, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard and G. Madec, 2014: Processes driving intraseasonal displacements of the eastern edge of the warm pool: the contribution of westerly wind events, Clim. Dyn., online.
  •  Ward, B., T. Fristedt, A.H. Callaghan, G. Sutherland, X. Sanchez and J. Vialard, 2014: The Air-Sea Interaction Profiler (ASIP): An autonomous Upwardly-Rising Profiler for Microstructure Measurements in the Upper Ocean, J. Atm. And Oce. Tech., online.
  •   Dayan, H., T. Izumo, J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne and S. Masson, 2014: Do regions outside the tropical Pacific influence ENSO through atmospheric teleconnections ?, Clim. Dyn., online.
  •   Vincent, E., K. Emanuel, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard and G. Madec, 2014: Influence of upper-ocean stratification interannual variability on Tropical Cyclones intensity, J. Adv. Mod. Earth Sys., online.
  •   Samson, G., S. Masson, M. Lengaigne, M.G. Keerthi, J. Vialard, S. Pous, G. Madec, N. Jourdain, S. Julien, C. Menkes and P. Marchesiello, 2014: The NOW regional coupled model: application to the tropical Indian Ocean climate and tropical cyclones activity, J. Adv. Mod. Earth Sys., online.
  •   Han, W., J. Vialard, M.J. McPhaden, T. Lee, Y. Masumoto, M. Feng and W. de Ruijter, 2014: Indian Ocean Decadal Variability: A Review, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., online.
  •   Chaittanya, A.V.S., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, V.V. Gopalakrishna, F. Durand, Ch. Krantikumar, V. Suneel, F. Papa and M. Ravichandran, 2014: Fishermen-operated salinity measurements reveal a “river in the sea” flowing along the east coast of India, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., online.
  •   Praveen Kumar B., J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne ,V.S.N. Murty, G. Foltz, M. J. McPhaden, S. Pous and C. de Boyer Montégut, 2014: Processes of interannual mixed layer temperature variability in the Thermocline Ridge of the Indian Ocean, Clim. Dyn., online.
  •   Dayan, H., J. Vialard, T. Izumo and M. Lengaigne, 2014: Does Sea Surface Temperature outside the tropical Pacific contribute to enhanced ENSO predictability?, Clim. Dyn., 43, 1311-1325.
  •   Akhil, V.P., F. Durand, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, M.G. Keerthi, V.V. Gopalakrishna, C. Deltel, F. Papa and C. de Boyer Montégut, 2014: A modeling study of the processes of surface salinity seasonal cycle in the Bay of Bengal, J. Geophys. Res. Oceans, 119, doi:10.1002/2013JC009632.
  •   Bellenger, H., E. Guilyardi, J. Leloup, M. Lengaigne and J. Vialard, 2014: ENSO representation in climate models: from CMIP3 to CMIP5, Clim. Dyn., 42, 1999-2018.
  •   Izumo, T., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, J-J. Luo, T. Yamagata and G. Madec, 2014: Influence of Indian Ocean Dipole and Pacific recharge on following year’s El Nino: interdecadal robustness, Clim. Dyn., 42, 291-310.
  •   Jourdain, N. C., N. Barnier, N. Ferry, J. Vialard, C.E. Menkes, M. Lengaigne and L. Parent, 2014: Tropical cyclones in two atmospheric (re)analyses and their response in two oceanic reanalyses, Ocean Modelling, 73, 108-122.
  •   Suresh, I., J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, W. Han, J. McCreary, F. Durand and P.M. Muraleedharan, 2013: Origins of wind-driven intraseasonal sea-level variations in the North Indian Ocean coastal waveguide, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 5740-5744, doi:10.1002/2013GL058312.
  •   Vialard, J., K. Drushka, H. Bellenger, M. Lengaigne, S. Pous and J-P. Duvel, 2013:  Understanding Madden-Julian-induced sea surface temperature variations in the North Western Australian Basin, Clim. Dyn., 41, 3203-3218.
  •   Currie, J.C., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, D.M. Kaplan, O. Aumont, S.W.A. Naqvi and O. Maury, 2013: Indian Ocean Dipole and El Niño/Southern Oscillation impacts on regional chlorophyll anomalies in the Indian Ocean, Biogeosciences, 10, 6677-6698.
  •   Cuypers, Y., X. Le Vaillant, P. Bouruet-Aubertot, J. Vialard, M. McPhaden, 2013: Tropical storm-induced near inertial internal waves during the Cirene experiment: energy fluxes and impact on vertical mixing, J. Geophys. Res., 118, 358-380.
  •   Jourdain, N. C., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, G. Madec, C.E. Menkes, E.M. Vincent, G. Samson, S. Jullien et B. Barnier, 2013: Observation-based estimates of ocean mixing inhibition by heavy rainfall under tropical cyclones, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 43, 205-221.
  •   Keerthi, M. G., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, C. de Boyer Montégut and P.M. Muraleedharan, 2013: Interannual variability of the Tropical Indian Ocean mixed layer depth, Clim. Dyn., 40, 743-759.
  •  Nidheesh, A.G., M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard, A.S. Unnikrishnan and H. Dayan, 2013: Decadal and long-term sea level variability in the tropical Indo-Pacific Ocean, Clim. Dyn., 41, 381-402.
  •   Nisha,  K., M. Lengaigne, V.V. Gopalakrishna, J. Vialard, S. Pous, A-C. Peter, F. Durand, S. Naik, 2013: Processes of summer intraseasonal sea surface temperature variability along the coasts of India, Ocean Dynamics, 63, 329-346.
  •  Praveen Kumar B., J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne ,V.S.N. Murty M. J. McPhaden, M. Cronin, F. Pinsard and K. Gopala Reddy, 2013: TropFlux wind stresses over the tropical oceans: evaluation and comparison with other products, Clim. Dyn., 40, 2049-2071.
  •  Vincent, E., M., G. Madec, M. Lengaigne, J. Vialard and A. Koch-Larrouy, 2013: Influence of Tropical Cyclones on sea surface temperature seasonal cycle and ocean heat transport, Clim. Dyn., 41, 2019-2038.
  •   Han, W., J. P. McCreary, Y. masumoto, J. Vialard and B. Duncan, 2011 : Basin modes in the equatorial Indian Ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 41, 1252-1270.
  •   Jayakumar, A., J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, C. Gnanseelan, J. P. McCreary and Praveen Kumar B. 2011 : Processes controlling the surface temperature signature of the Madden-Julian Oscillation in the thermocline ridge of the Indian Ocean, Clim. Dyn., 37, 2217-2234.
  •   Vialard, J., P. Terray, J-P. Duvel, R. Nanjundiah, S.S.C. Shenoi and D. Shankar, 2011 : Factors controlling January-April rainfall over southern India and Sri Lanka, Clim. Dyn., 37, 493-507.
  •  Foltz, G. R., J. Vialard, Praveen Kumar B. and M. J. McPhaden, 2010 : Seasonal mixed layer heat balance of the southwestern tropical Indian Ocean, J. Clim., 23, 947-965.
  •  Izumo, T., J. Vialard, M. Lengaigne, C. de Boyer Montégut, S. K. Behera, J-J. Luo, S. Cravatte, S. Masson, and T. Yamagata, 2010 : Influence of the Indian Ocean Dipole on following year’s El Niño, Nature Geo., 3 (3), 168-172.
  •   Izumo, T., S. Masson, J. Vialard, G. Madec, C. de Boyer Montégut, S.K. Behera, J-J. Luo, K. Takahashi and T. Yamagata, 2010: Interannual variations of low-frequency Madden-Julian Oscillation in Austral Summer : Observations, Clim. Dyn., 35, 669-683.
  •   Duvel, J-P., C. Basdevant, H. Bellenger, G. Reverdin, A. Vargas and J. Vialard, 2009, The Aeroclipper, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 90, 63-71.
  •   McCreary, J. P., R. Murtugudde, J. Vialard, P. N. Vinayachandran, J. D. Wiggert, R. R. Hood, D. Shankar, and S. R. Shetye, 2009: Biophysical processes in the Indian Ocean, In: Indian Ocean Biogeochemical Processes and Ecological Variability, J.D.Wiggert, R.R. Hood, S.W.A. Naqvi, S.L. Smith, and K.H. Brink (ed.), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C, pp 9-32.
  •  McPhaden, M., J., G. R. Foltz, V. S. N. Murty, M. Ravichandran, G. A. Vecchi, J. Vialard, J. D.. Wiggert and L. Tu, 2009: Ocean-Atmosphere Interactions During Cyclone Nargis, Eos Trans. AGU, 90, 53-54.
  •   McPhaden, G. Meyers, M. J., K. Ando, Y. Masumoto, V. S. N. Murty, M. Ravichandran, F. Syamsudin, J. Vialard, W. Yu, L. Wu, 2009: RAMA: Research Moored Array for African-Asian-Australian Monsoon Analysis and Prediction. Bull. Am. Meteor. Soc., 90, 459-480.
  •  Sévellec, F., T. Huck, M. Ben Jelloul and J. Vialard, 2009, Non-normal multidecadal response of the thermohaline circulation induced by optimal surface salinity perturbations, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 39, 852-872.
  •  Resplandy, L., J. Vialard, Y. Dandonneau, O. Aumont, M. Levy, 2009: Seasonal and intraseasonal biogeochemical variability in the thermocline ridge of the Indian Ocean, J. Geophys. Res., 114,  C07024,  doi:10.1029/2008JC005246.
  •   Vialard, J., S.S.C Shenoi, J.P. McCreary, D. Shankar, F. Durand, V. Fernando and S.R. Shetye, 2009: Intraseasonal response of Northern Indian Ocean coastal waveguide to the Madden-Julian Oscillation, Geophys. Res. Lett., 36,  L14605,  doi:10.1029/2008GL037010.      Selected as “AGU Journal Highlight”.      Reprint (use 35455968 for ID and login)
  •  Vialard, J., J-P. Duvel, M. McPhaden, P. Bouruet-Aubertot, B. Ward, E. Key, D. Bourras, R. Weller, P. Minnett, A. Weill, C. Cassou, L. Eymard, T. Fristedt, C. Basdevant, Y. Dandoneau, O. Duteil, T. Izumo, C. de Boyer Montégut, S. Masson, 2009, Cirene: Air Sea Interactions in the Seychelles-Chagos thermocline ridge region, Bull. Am. Met. Soc., 90, 45-61.
  •    Wiggert, J.D., J. Vialard, and M.J. Behrenfeld, 2009: Basin-wide modification of dynamical and biogeochemical processes by the Indian Ocean Dipole. In: Indian Ocean Biogeochemical Processes and Ecological Variability, J.D.Wiggert, R.R. Hood, S.W.A. Naqvi, S.L. Smith, and K.H. Brink (ed.), American Geophysical Union, Washington, D. C, pp 385-408.
  •  Bellon, G., A.H. Sobel and J. Vialard, 2008, Ocean-atmosphere coupling in the monsoon intraseasonal oscillation: a simple model study, Journal of Climate, 21, 5254-5270.
  •  Dutrieux, P., C. Menkes, J. Vialard, P. Flament and B. Blanke, 2008, Lagrangian study of Tropical Instability Vortices in the Atlantic ocean, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 400-417.
  •  Sévellec, F., T. Huck, M. Ben Jelloul, N. Grima J. Vialard and A.T Weaver, 2008, Optimal surface salinity perturbations of the meridional overturning and heat transport in a global ocean general circulation model. J. Phys. Oceanogr., 38, 2739-2754.
  •  Vialard, J., G. Foltz, M. McPhaden , J-P. Duvel and C. de Boyer Montégut, 2008, Strong Indian Ocean sea surface temperature signals associated with the Madden-Julian Oscillation in late 2007 and early 2008, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L19608, doi:10.1029/2008GL035238. Reprint (use 97868284 for ID and login)
  •  Zavala-Garay J., C. Zhang, A.M. Moore, A.T. Wittenberg, M.J. Harrison, A. Rosati, J. Vialard and R. Kleeman, 2008, Sensitivity of hybrid ENSO models to unresolved atmospheric variability, Journal of Climate, 21, 3704-3721.
  •  De Boyer Montégut, C., J. Vialard, S.S.C. Shenoi, D. Shankar, F. Durand, C. Ethé and G. Madec, 2007, Simulated seasonal and interannual variability of mixed layer heat budget in the northern Indian Ocean, Journal of Climate, 20, 3249-3268.
  •  Duvel, J-P. and J. Vialard, 2007, Indo-Pacific Sea Surface Temperature Perturbations Associated with Intraseasonal Oscillations of the Tropical Convection, Journal of Climate, 20, 3056-3082.
  •  Sengupta, D., R. Senan, B.N. Goswami and J. Vialard, 2007, Intraseasonal variability of equatorial Indian Ocean zonal currents, Journal of Climate, 20, 3036-3055.
  •  Menkes, C., J. Vialard, S.C. Kennan, J-P. Boulanger, G. Madec and K. Rodgers, 2006, A modelling study of the three-dimensional heat budget of Tropical Instability Waves in the Equatorial Pacific, Journal of Physical Oceanography, 36, 847–865.
  •  Moore, A., J. Zavala-Garay, Y. Tang, R. Kleeman, A.T. Weaver, J. Vialard, K. Sahami, D.L.T. Anderson and M. Fisher, 2006, On the low-dimensionality of ENSO as evidenced by the optimal forcing patterns of coupled models, Journal of Climate, 19, 4683-4699, doi : 10.1175/JCLI3870.1
  •  Peter, A., M. Le Hénaff, Y. du Penhoat, C. E. Menkes, F. Marin, J. Vialard, G. Caniaux, and A. Lazar (2006), A model study of the seasonal mixed layer heat budget in the equatorial Atlantic, J. Geophys. Res., 111, C06014, doi:10.1029/2005JC003157.
  •  Gorgues, T., C. Menkes, O. Aumont, J. Vialard, Y. Dandoneau and L. Bopp, Biogeochemical impact of Tropical Instability Waves in the Equatorial Pacific, Geophys. Res. Lett, 32, L24615, doi :10.1029/2005GL024110.
  •  Masson, S., J.-J. Luo, G. Madec, J. Vialard, F. Durand, S. Gualdi, E. Guilyardi, S. Behera, P. Delecluse, A. Navarra and T. Yamagata, Impact of barrier layer on winter-spring variability of the South-Eastern Arabian Sea, Geophys. Res. Lett, 32, L07703 10.1029/2004GL021980
  •  Ricci, S., A.T. Weaver, J. Vialard and P. Rogel, 2005: Incorporating State-Dependent Temperature–Salinity Constraints in the Background Error Covariance of Variational Ocean Data Assimilation. Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 317-338, doi: 10.1175/MWR2872.1.
  •  Vialard, J., F. Vitart, M.A. Balmaseda, T.N. Stockdale, D.L.T. Anderson, 2005, An ensemble generation method for seasonal forecasting with an ocean-atmosphere coupled model. Mon. Wea. Rev, 133, 441-453, doi: 10.1175/MWR-2863.1
  •  Durand, F., S. R. Shetye, J. Vialard, D. Shankar, D., S. S. C. Shenoi, C. Ethe, and G. Madec, 2004:  Impact of temperature inversions on SST evolution in the South-Eastern Arabian Sea during the pre-summer monsoon season. Geophys. Res. Lett. ,31 (1) , L01305,  10.1029/2003GL018906.
  •  Duvel, J-P., R. Roca and J. Vialard, 2004, Ocean Mixed Layer Temperature Variations induced by Intraseasonal Convective Perturbations over the Indian Ocean. J. Atm. Sciences,61, 1004-1023.
  •  Pezzi, L. P., J. Vialard, K. J. Richards, C. Menkes, and D. Anderson (2004),  Influence of ocean-atmosphere coupling on the properties of tropical instability waves,  Geophys. Res. Lett., 31, L16306,  doi:10.1029/2004GL019995.
  •  Tang, Y., R. Kleeman, A. M. Moore, J. Vialard, and A. Weaver, 2004, An off-line, numerically efficient initialization scheme in an oceanic general circulation model for El Niño–Southern Oscillation prediction, J. Geophys. Res., 109, C05014, doi:10.1029/2003JC002159.
    Vossepoel, F., A.T. Weaver,
    J. Vialard and P. Delecluse, 2004, Adjustment of near-equatorial wind stress with four-dimensional variational data assimilation in a model of the Pacific Ocean, Mon. Wea. Rev,132, 2070-2083.
  •  Vialard, J., A.T. Weaver, D.L.T. Anderson and P. Delecluse, 2003: Three- and four-dimensional variational assimilation with a general circulation model of the tropical Pacific Ocean, Part 2 : physical validation. Monthly Weather Review, 131, 1379-1395.
  •  Moore, A., J. Vialard, A.T. Weaver, D.L.T Anderson, R. Kleeman and J.R. Johnson, 2003 : The role of air-sea interaction in controlling the optimal perturbations of low-frequency ocean atmosphere modes, Journal of Climate,16, 951-968.
  •  Weaver, A.T., J. Vialard, and D.L.T. Anderson, 2003: Three- and four-dimensional variational assimilation with a general circulation model of the tropical Pacific Ocean, Part 1 : formulation, internal diagnostics and consistency checks. Monthly Weather Review, 131, 1360-1378.
  •  Tang, Y., R. Kleeman, A.M. Moore, A. Weaver, J. Vialard: The use of ocean reanalysis products to initialize ENSO predictions, Geophys. Res. Lett.30, 1694, 10.1029/2003GL017664
  • Troccoli A., M. Balmaseda, J. Segschneider, J. Vialard, D.L.T. Anderson, K. Haines, T. Stockdale, F. Vitart and A.D. Fox, 2002 :Salinity adjustments in the presence of temperature data assimilation, Monthly Weather Review,130, 89-102.
  • Vialard, J., P. Delecluse, and C. Menkes, 2002, A modeling study of salinity variability and its effects in the tropical Pacific Ocean during the 1993–1999 period, J. Geophys. Res., 107(C12), 8005, doi:10.1029/2000JC000758.
  • Vialard, J., C. Menkes, D.L.T Anderson and M. Balmaseda, 2002 : Sensitivity of Pacific Ocean Tropical Instability Waves to Initial Conditions. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 33, 105-121.
  •  Vialard, J., C. Menkes, J-P. Boulanger, P. Delecluse, E. Guilyardi and M. McPhaden, 2001 a: A model study of the oceanic mechanisms affecting the equatorial SST during the 1997-98 El Niño. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 31, 1649-1675.
  •  Radenac, M-H., C. Menkes, J. Vialard, C. Moulin, Y. Dandonneau, T. Delcroix, C. Dupouy, A. Stoens, and P-Y. Deschamps, 2001 : Modeled and observed impacts of the 1997-1998 El Niño on nitrate and new production in the equatorial Pacific. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106,
  •  Segschneider, J., D.L.T. Anderson, J. Vialard, M. Balmaseda, T.N. Stockdale, A. Troccoli, and K. Haines, 2001 : Initialization of seasonal forecasts assimilating sea level and temperature observations. J. Climate, 14, 4292-4307.
  •  Picaut, J., M. Ioualalen, T. Delcroix, F. Masia, R. Murtugudde and J. Vialard, 2001 : Displacements of an Oceanic Zone of Convergence on the Eastern Edge of the Pacific Warm Pool : Consequences for ENSO and Bio-chemical Phenomena. Journal of Geophysical Research, 106,
  • Vialard, J. and P. Delecluse, 1998 a: An OGCM Study for the TOGA Decade. Part I : Role of Salinity in the Physics of the Western Pacific Fresh Pool. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28, 1071 - 1088.
  • Vialard, J. and P. Delecluse, 1998 b: An OGCM Study for the TOGA Decade. Part II : Barrier Layer Formation and Variability. Journal of Physical Oceanography, 28, 1089 - 1106.
Personal interests
    Rock climbing, guitar, middle east and Indian culture and civilization, travelling.


Mailing Address:
LOCEAN - Case 100
4, Place Jussieu
75252 Paris Cedex 05
Phone: +33 1 44 27 50 12
Fax: +33 1 44 27 38 05